Библиотека Михаила Грачева




Irchin Yu.V., Talalova L.N.

Introduction to Political Science: Programme


Авторские программы учебных курсов по политологии. /

Под общ. ред. проф. Ирхина Ю.В. – М.: МАКС Пресс, 2001. С. 273–286.


Красным шрифтом в квадратных скобках обозначается конец текста на соответствующей странице печатного оригинала указанного издания


The programme of the course “Introduction to Political Science” is compiled according to the norms of the State Standard of Higher Professional Education. The Programme gives all the necessary information about the requirements to the course study, credits, its structure, the content of the topics under study, the lists of recommended literature, problems to be discussed.

The Programme is designed as a source for teacher/student studying of the basic notions and principles of contemporary political science on the basis of its World and Russian development and implementation. More than this, however, it is meant to be a source for introducing the backgrounds of political analysis as well as the requirements for political science worker specialization. The Programme is oriented for students of Political Science Departments and Humanities and Social Sciences Department.

The authors of the Programme:

Dr. Science, Professor of the Chair of Political Science of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Yuriy V. Irchin.

Ph.D, Head of the Chair of Foreign Languages of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Larissa N. Talalova.




The term “politics” (Gr. “politika” – state and public affairs) got its spread being under the influence of Aristotelian treatise about State, Power and Government. He called it “Politics ”. Politics is an implicit aspect of public existence. It started from the demands which were mutually made by people and from the efforts inspired by people to find a decision – making in governing the society. Aristotle said that the welfare for mankind is basically the mains goal of politics which is the most important science.

Politics can’t be extracted from society, its past, present and future. On each stage of mankind development it is collateral to the destiny of millions of people all over the world, its feedback should be adequate to the challenges of time. “To study politics signifies to study how the fundamental solutions are made”, – R. Schneider wrote.

The public human activity connected with politics can be realized specifically at each concrete stage, it can be reconstructed in different ways by new generations, at last, it can be correlated by cultural and civilizational factors. Each epoch puts the questions of entity in a new way. These questions concern the sense of life, consequently, the sense of politics. With the ascending of public development, with the broadening of public participation in public life, the demands for politics apprehension ascend, too. This, in its turn, makes an influence on the quality of political findings and solutions.

The contemporary period of Civilization, today’s period of social reforms in the Russian Federation focus on thorough speculating of political changes in society, on cognitive participation of a human being in politics, on prosperous society formation. This emphasizes a role and a sense of politics and political science in society. [c.273]

Political science (politology) – a theory about power and political governing; about political relationship, process, systems development: about political cognition, about human behavior and activity.

Political science maintains important cognitive, theoretical, analytical and methodological functions. A specialist, a citizen who acquired politological knowledge can comprehend the complicated political situations and processes, see the mechanism of legislative system work, perceive the influence strategy of politics on political, social, juridical institutions and the whole society development.

“Political knowledge acquisition reflects the interests of everybody whose intentions are to understand his/her position and role in society and to influence on goals choice as well as on means of these goals realization in the scopes of the whole state”, – A. Bodnar, a Polish scholar, said.

The recommended Programme “Introduction to Political Science” corresponds to the key requirements of the programme of Bachelor\ Specialist Training.

The influental task of this Programme is to provide students an overview of this contemporary political science fundamentals on the basis of political science latest achievements study in world and Russian experience in political life generation.


Basic tasks of the course are the following:


– to provide knowledge in the sphere of political science and its methodology;

– to help students to adopt the values and democratic practice of the world political experience, the problems of actualization of this practice;

– to give knowledge of political mechanisms in solving social problems on the basis of constitutional and democratic principles;

– to formulate the theoretical backgrounds of political cognition and culture on the basis of human values;

– to develop the research way of thinking, politological analysis skills, prognostic skills, to facilitate students’ argumentation in round – table discussions, workshops, etc.;

– to direct students within democratic convictions for them to acquire the independent political behavior in the framework of democratic options;

– to teach students to evaluate democratic institutions activity.


The main objectives for students are:


– to know the object, the subject and methods of investigation, basic terms, notions and concepts;

– to understand the essence of politics, its social, legislative and moral grounds;

– to have an outlook on the key point of power and political life, political relationship and processes, on subjects of politics and consequences of participation in politics;

– to know human rights, the grounds of political and constitutional structure of society, basic trends of activity and functioning of a state and a civil society;

– to be ready to highlight the theoretical applied, axilogical and instrumental components of political knowledge, to apprehend their role and functions in adjusting some political solutions;

– to identify the role of political ideology, political culture and political communication in the life of society, to know politological and ideological schools, concepts, dimensions; [c.274]

– to pay attention to international political life processes, to geopolitical situation, to the Russian political process, to Russia’s status in contemporary political situation;

– to have an idea about the role of a specialist in political science, his functions and moral responsibility;

– to obtain political analysis skills, to be able to apply politological knowledge in professional and public activity according to the law and moral norms.





The title of options


Option I. Politology as a science, a discipline and profession.


The themes of lectures

1. The concept of politics.

2. Politology as a science, a discipline, profession and vocation.

3. Goals and means in politics.

The themes of seminars

1. Politics as a public notion.

2. The subject, categories, methods and functions of Politology.


Option II. Main stages of the world political thought and science development.


The themes of lectures

1. Ancient East.

2. Ancient Greek models of democratic structure of the state.

3. Achievements of development.

The themes of seminars

1. The leading political thoughts: history and contemporaneity.

2. Achievements of Russian political thought and science.


Option III. Power and power relationship.


The themes of lectures

1. Power and Society.

2. Social and institutional subject of politics.

3. Ethnic communities as subjects of politics.

4. Civil society as a subject and an object of politics.

The themes of seminars

1. Relationship and activity of subjects of politics in Russia.

2. National relationship in the Russian Federation.


Option IV. Political system of society and political regimes.


The themes of lectures

1. Political system of society.

2. The concept of political regimes.

3. Democracy and its basic forms. [c.275]

The themes of seminars

1. Democracy: its notion, historical forms, prerequisites and drawbacks.

2. Basic trends, ways and problems of the Russian society democratization.


Option V. Political and constitutional grounds of the state.


The themes of lectures

1. The essence, features, types and functions of the state.

2. Constitutional principles of politics. Law and social state.

3. The Constitution of the RF as a legislative basis of politics.

4. Federalism and its specifies in the Russian Federation.

The themes of seminars

1. Political and legislative grounds of the Russian Federation.

2. Territorial structure of Russia, the content of the national politics of Russia as a federal state.

3. Human rights and liberties.

Assessment seminars (variants of topics)

1. Rights and functions of the Presidential power in Russia.

2. The legislative power in the Russian Federation.

3. The role of the executive power in Russian Federation.

4. The characteristics of the juridical power in contemporary Russia.

5. The role of regional power in the Russian Federation.

Summative Evaluation of the 1st part of the course.


Option VI. The role of parties and lobby in society development.


The themes of lectures

1. Political parties and public progress.

2. Party system of society, its specifics in Russia.

3. Lobby’s role in politics.

The themes of seminars

1. The elective system of the Russian Federation.

2. The role of political parties in the Russian Federation.


Option VII. Political cognition of society and mass media.


The themes of lectures

1. Political cognition of society.

2. World political ideologies.

3. Mass-media and politics.

The themes of seminars

1. Political ideologies in the Russian Federation.

2. The role of mass media in political development of the Russian Federation. [c.276]


Option VIII. Personality and politics.


The themes of lectures

1. Political culture: its notion, structure, functions.

2. The stages and dimensions of political socialization.

3. Political behavior and participation.

4. Political leadership.

The themes of seminars

1. The role of political socialization in a citizen formation.

2. The problems of participation in politics.


Option IX. Political processes and hanges in politics.


The themes of lectures

1. The notion of political process, its analysis and prophecy.

2 Political conflicts and techniques of their regulation.

3. Elections as a political process.

4. Political development, modernization and governance.

The themes of seminars

1.Political and ethnic-political conflicts: their essence and ways of settling.

2. Elective systems, election process and marketing.

Written test: Political process in contemporary Russia and other countries: comparative analysis.


Option X. World politics.


The themes of lectures

1. Concept of world politics and geopolitics.

2. The foreign policy of Russia.

The themes of seminars

1. Globalization of the world unity and the problems of multipolar world formation.

2. The basic dimensions of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation.

Examination on the course.




Option I.

Politology as a science, a discipline and profession.


1. The concept of politics.


The origin of the world “politics” comes from Greek worlds “police (a town-state), “politeia” (constitution), “polites” (a sitizen), ”politikos” (a state official), “politia” (a form of state, an optimum political system of society – Aristotle`s notion).

Politics as a multi-folded world of the relationship, activity, behaviuor, orientations, views and communication between people and political organization (institutions) on the problem of power and governance. [c.277]

The basic meanings of the concept “politics” (substuntial, institutional, sociological, legislative, ethic (normative), conflict, concentient).

The form, the content and the process of the politics. The forms of politics (organizational structure – institutions, laws, political, legislative norms). The content of politics, its goals and values, problems under solution, motives and mechanisms of decision-making, etc.

Elements and levels of politics:

1) political cognition and culture, values, political views and theories;

2) normative ideas – parties’ programmes, lobby’s directions, political and law norms;

3) power institutions, the forms of struggle for power;

4) balance of parliament and subordination, political struggle and cooperation.

The levels of politics: mega-level (world politics), macro-level (state), micro-level (parties, trade unions). The concept of political life in society.

The basic subjects of politics: larger and smaller social (ethnic) groups, political organizations and movements which support these social groups (states, parties, lobby, trade unions), political leaders. The concept of political factor. The types and sub-types of politics: foreign – domestic; according to the sphere of application: youth, scientific, ecological, social, educational, etc. Functions of politics: work for stability in society, for well-being of citizens, for human rights protection; dealing with development strategy, material wealth distribution, conflicts settling, constituting the social objects, etc.


2. Politology as a science and a discipline.


Politology as a science about power and political relationship, processes and systems development, political cognition, people’s behaviour and activity.

Public need in political science. Political science as a separate research trend in European and US Universities and Academies of Science (XIX – beg. XX c.). UNESCO (1948) about necessity of teaching the course “Political Science “ in the higher school for states– members of UNO) and International Association of Political Science (1949). Implementation of the course “Political Science “ in the teaching process in higher education of the Russian Federation (the beg. 90-s, XX c.).

The structure and the content of the course “Political Science “ in the Russian higher education according to the State Educational Standard of the RF: the object, the subject, methods of investigation; the history of political school; power theory; political life of society; politics subjects and there relationship; political system of society; institutional aspects of politics; political ideologies; political culture and socialization; political process in Russia; world politics and foreign politics of Russia.

Theoretical and applied politology. Basic disciplines in political science: political philosophy, political theory, comparative politology, the history of political schools, political history and political regionalistics, political sociology and political psychology, the theory and the history of political institutions, political process, political analyses and prophecy, political management, world politics and international relationship.

Politology and other disciplines. Major textbooks, bulletins, encyclopedias, journals on politology. Politology literature in Internet.


3. Consequences of political science and its concepts.


The concepts of consequences, categories, notions. Politology as a science about political consequences. Politology as a science based on study the system of political [c.278] categories. The examples of politological consequences: democratization of society, improving of political activity, etc. Basic categories of politology and there characteristics: politics, political, power, state, party, participation in politics, political cognition, etc.


4. Methods of investigation of politics.


The concept of method. Logic and empiric methods. The characteristics of major methods and approaches towards the study of politics: sociological, psychological, civilizational, institutional, normative-value, comparative, historical, etc. Methods of empiric investigation.


5. Politology as vocation and profession.


Functions of politology: political theory development, political knowledge translation, etc. Politology study importance for future specialist formation. The characteristics of knowledge and skills for a politologist. Politological knowledge and skills usage and perspectives.


6. Goals and means in politics.


The concept of the balance between goals and means in politics. The ways of solving the contradictions between goals and means. Violence and non– violence in politics. Non – violent actions. The influence of politics on the dimensions of society’s development, the increasing of the role of politics in transitional periods, complicating of social genesis. The price of responsibility for political solutions.


Self-control work with terms: politician, politia, politics, policy, politology, political science, youth politics, social politics, concepts and categories of political science.


Option II.

Main stages of the world political thought and science development.


1. The Genesis of political thought and science in the states of Ancient East.


Political mythology. Political and legal ideas in Ancient Time (The rules of Manu, the Rules of Hammurapi, “Arthashastra”. Confucianism, Mo-Tse, etc.) the experience of political governing is despotic and monarchic societies.


2. Ancient Greek thinkers about democratic tendencies and forms of society developement.


Aristotle as a founder of the analysis of the democratic forms of governing. Politological alghorytm: Sokcrat-Plato-Aristotle. Plato’s “State” (the analysis of the ideal autocratic-despotic state) and “Rules” (the analysis of the representative form of governing), Aristotle’s “Athenian politia” (the analysis of democratic conditions).


3. Achievements of political thought in New and Newer Time.


Machiavelli about politics as a science; the theory of power division and “cheks and balances” theory in Presidential ruling; human rights theory (T. Hobbs, J. Lock, Ch. Motesqieu, T. Jefferson, J. Madison), elite theory (W. Pareto, G. Moska, R. Michels). The first politological Departments in the European and US Universities in the end of the XIX c. Politology as a separate branch of science. Basic achievements of politology: working out the effective political (state) governing theory, etc. The best representatives of contemporary Western politological school: G. Almond, S. Verba, R. Dahl, D. Easton, A. Leiphart, R. Aron, J. Blondel, M. Duverge, R.-J. Schwartzenberg, K. Von Baime, R. Darendorf, H.-D. Kleingemann, etc. [c.279]


4. The development of political thought formation in conditions of Russian political thought development (according to political– historical genesis):


Ancient Russia – “A Word about Law and Good” (Illarian, 1049), “Russkaia Pravda”.

Moscow Russia – “Moscow– the third Rome”, “politics” by J. Krizanich, etc.

The Russian Empire (XVIII c.) – political ideas of Peter the Great, F. Prokopovich, V. Tatichev, A. Radichev on political governing, “Order” by Сatherine, II.

The Russian Empire (XIX c.) – Early Liberalism (M. Speransky), Slavophilism (I.Aksacov), Occidentolism (P. Chaadaiev, M. Checherin, A. Herzen), political-Law liberalism (M. Kovalevsky), Conservatism (S. Uvarov), “Narodnichestvo” (P. Lavrov, P. Tkachev), Arachism (M. Bakunin, P. Kropotkin), Social– Democratism (G. Plechanov, V. Lenin, J.Martov); Implementation of the courses “The History of political and Law Theories” and “Philosophy of Law” at the Law Departments of Universities (the end of the XIX c.).

Duma’s Monarchy (1905– 1917) – multiparty system, a variety of political-ideological programmes of Russia’s development.

Soviet Russia (1917 – the end of 80-s)– the ideas of state, one-party socialism.

Modern Russia (from 1991) – pluralism in ideology, Constitution (1993), “The Laws on Election of the president and the State Duma”, the study of politology and other “new” humanities (sociology, culturology) at the Universities, working up in higher education institutions and research institutes. The overview of basic achievements in contemporary Russian politology in the and XX – beginning XXI.


Self-control work with terms: political thought, political ideas, law ideas. Personalities: T. Hobbs, J. Lock, Machiavelli, Ch. Montesqieu, T. Jefferson, J. Madison, W. Pareto, G. Laswell, R. Dahl, M. Speransky, P. Chaadaiev, B. Chicherin, S. Muromtsev,

G. Plechanov, V. Lenin, N. Berdjaev, I. Ilyin, etc.


Option III.

Power and Power Relationship.


1. Power and society.


The concept of power. Variativity of power definitions. The subject of power. The object of power. The essence of political (power) relationship in society, varieies of this relationship. The power resources. The types of power. Political power and its resources. Political supremacy and legitimacy. Power legitimacy and effentiveness. Power legality and legitimacy. Power legalisation and legitimation. political activity, behaviour and actions. Political activity varieties and classification.


2. Social and institutional subjects of politics.


The subjects of politics: social (ethnic) groups, political institutions, individuals (political leaders) Social unities and groups: civilization, people, nation, masses, civil society, class, intellectuals, elite, lobby, collectives, small groups, political leaders. Contemporary society social stratification and its influence on politics. Algorithms of poletical investigation: “masses – classes – parties – leaders”; “Personality politics – large social groups – ethnic unities – small social groups – political elites – political leadership”.

Political elites. Their essence function and proportion to other social unities. The features of political elite. Typology of political elite. Elite theories. The concept of bureaucracy, its nature and functions. Bureaucracy and politics. [c.280]

Political institutions as subject and objects of politics. The concept of political institution. Spesifics of political institution activity. Basic Russian Political institutions. Political leader as a subject of politics. Masses and mass movements in politics.


3. Ethnic unities as subjects of politics.


The increasing of ethnic unities role in social development. The concept of s nation and a nationality, their definitions. The concept of ethnos. The essence of national relationship, its structure, solving principles. National relationship rolein politics. The right of nations for self-determination and its limits. The forms of the national – state strucrure: unitarism, federation, confederation. National (territotial) – state strucrure of the RF. Nations and ethnoses role in Russia, nations and ethnoses as subjects of multiethnic state.


4. Civil society as a subject and an object of politics.


The concept of civil society, its characteristic features according to J. Lock, W. Von Humboldt, H. Hegel, K. Marx, A. Gramishi, etc.

The theory and practice of civil society forming. Specifics of a balance between a state and a civil society in the world and in Russia. Multiethnic civil society forming in Russia: achievements and problems.


Self-control work with terms: power, absolute power, state power, legislative power, executive power, local power, hereditary power, representative power, juridical power, federal power, central power, political influence, political power, subjects of politics, politics, nation, natiocracy, national politics, national movement, people, civilization, bureaucracy, elite, leader, class, lobby, civil society.


Option IV.

Political system of society and political regimes.


1. Political system of society.


The essence of political organisation and political system, their analysis problems. The content and the structure of society political system, its subsystems: normative-regulative, institutional information-communicative, political participation. Different political systems, background for their classification. Political system functions.


2. The concept of political regimes.


Political regime as a characteristic of society political system, its essence and basic types: totalitarian, autoritarian, democratic. The characteristics of political regime (according to R. Aron) The concept of totalitarism. The prerequisites of totalitarism. The characteristics of totalitarian political system and regime (according to Arendt, Brezinsky, Amendole, etc.) the logic of totalitarian thought. The sphere of totalitarian cognition. Political features. Social and economic features. Totalitarism variations. The strong and weak points of totalitarism. The concept of autoritarism. The characteristics of autoritarian political system and regime. The problems of regime transition.


3. Democracy and its forms.


The concept measurement of democracy. Normative and empiric definitions of democracy. The total and socially-democracy. Direct, plebiscitary and representative democracy. Despotic, totalitarian and constitutional democracy. Individualized, pluralistic and collectivistic democracy. Masses’ role in contemporary democracies. [c.281]

Valuable backgrounds, social and economic prerequisites, ethnic and religious (political and culture) principles of democracy. Foreign policy prerequisites of democracy. Populiarities of transition towards democracy. The concept of democratic society system and regime, their characteristics.


Self–control work with terms: political system, political regime, autoritarism, totalitarism, democracy, Ancient democracy, plebiscitary democracy, procedure democracy, socialist democracy, participation democracy.


Option V.

Political and constitutional backgrounds of state.


1. The essence, features, types and functions of a state.


The concept of a state, its features. The reasons of state forming. Historical forms of a state. Basic Forms of governing: monarchy, republic (constitutional, presidential). The forms of territorial-state structure of a state and society. State functions.


2. Constitutional politics principles.


The concept of Constitutional and its role in politics. Political and constitutional backgrounds of a state. The essence of a state as a constitutional institution. Organizational structure of contemporary state. The principle of power distribution. State apparatus, its structure and principles organization. The essence and functions of President, parliament, government, legislative power, local authorities institutions. Law and social state. The perspectives of law and social state formation in the RF.


3. Russian Federation Constitution as a normative background of politics.


General characteristics of Russian Federation Constitution (1993) – 9 Chapters and 2 Sections: The character of Constitution and state construction of the RF (Ch. I), federal structure (Ch. III), the rights and liberties (Ch. II), the principles of functioning and interrelation of power: presidential, parliamentary, executive, juridical (Ch. I, IV-VII), local authorities, amendments of Constitution.


4. Federalism and its specifics in Russia.


The concept of federalism. The state and territorial structure of Russia. Russian federalism specifics. RF subjects concept, classification of the subjects. The analysis of national and state structure of the Russian Federation. The rights and obligations of the RF subjects. Constitutions of RF republics. The RF subjects relationship problem. Federal centres formation. The content of the RF national politics.


Self-control work with terms: democratic state, multinational state, national state, police state, legislative state, social state, totalitarian state, unitarian state, federal state, church state, state “religious theories”, state “Kantian theory”, state “Marxist theory”, state “racial theory”, state-territorial structure, constitutional monarchy, republic, federalism, President, Parliament, Government, civil rights, citizen, citizenship.


Option VI.

Political Parties and Public Organizations role in society development.


1. Political parties and social progress.


Party as a political institution. The party concept and genesis. Major features and differences of a party from other public unities. Political party criteria. The RF [c.282] Constitution about political parties in Russia. The concept of Chapter and Programme of political party. Political party functions and tasks. Methods and forms of party influence on political life. Party types: “left”, centrist, “right”. Characteristics and classification of main political parties in the RF. Parties in the State Duma. The concept of strategy and tactics of political parties. Party blocs and fractions in the State Duma. Party development problems.


2. Party system of Society.


The concept of party system, its variations in different countries. Single-party, double-party, multi-party systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different party systems. Party system influence on election (M.Duverger). The RF party system specifics. Alliance Forming. New political parties formation.


3. Public organizations role in politics.


The concept of lobby, its essence, typical features. Lobby and group of interests. Lobby classification. Lobby role in politics. The RF lobby specifics, main trends of its participation in political life. The essence of trade union and trade-unionism tasks. Trade union role in politics. Youth organizations and politics.


Self-control work with terms: political party, party system, lobby, Russian parties, partocracy, party lists, trade union, trade-unionism, youth movement.


Option VII.

Political consciousness of society and mass media.


1. Political consciousness of society.


The concept of political consciousness of society, its structure: theoretical level-political ideology, political theory; common level –mass cognition. The essence and the content of political ideology. Ideology structure. Ideology carrier. The ideology role in political life of society. Ideology functions. Common cognition, its characteristic. Interest, motives, moods, traditions role in politics. Political orientations. Emotional processes and their reflection in politics. Mass behaviour and “crowd” psychology. Political psychology of Personality. Russian political mentality specifics.


2. Basic political ideologies.


Characteristics of political ideologies of the XVIII-XX c.: liberalism, conservatism, social-democracy. The concept of liberalism, its basic features and representatives. The concept of conservatism, its basic features and representatives. The concept of socialism (social-democracy), its basic features and representatives. The essence of nationalism. Religious ideologies. Contemporary political cognition. The specifics of formation and development of basic ideological trends in Russia. The problems of state ideology / the Constitution of the RF about ideology. The concept of religion, religious ideology, religion and politics.


3. Mass media and politics.


The concept of mass media, its characteristics. Mass media in politics. Radio, TV, Internet and politics. Russian mass media specifics and its role in politics.


Self-control work with terms: ideology liberalism, conservatism, political ideology, political consciousness, social-democracy, nationalism, mass media, Internet. [c.283].


Option VIII.

Personality and politics.


1. Political culture: concept, structure, functions.


Political culture as a social institution, its essence and content. Basic types of political culture: Western and Eastern culture. Types of political culture: authoritarian, democratic. The concept of subculture. Social-economic, Social– cultural, political and spiritual backgrounds of political culture. Political culture role in political development. Political culture functions. Political knowledge role in political culture formation.


2. The stages and dimensions of political socialization.


The concept and the content of political socialization. The problems of political values adoption. Political socialization channels: family, educational institutions, youth groups, social institutions, traditions. Political socialization stages. Value orientations and political behaviour. Political socialization conceptions. The RF political socialization specifics.


3. Political behaviour and participation.


Personality as a subject and an object of politics. A human being as a measure of politics. Politics weaning for Personality and Personality role in politics. Human being’s participation forms in political life. Conditions and mechanisms of human being’s involvement in politics. Political dimension of Personality. Personality and state interrelation models. Personality and power in different political systems and societies. Political participation. Social, economic, cultural, psychological, prerequisites of political dimension in Personality’s behavior and activity. Political activity and passiveness. Personality’s typology within the frame of involvement in political life.


Self-control work with terms: political culture, political subculture, political participation, political socialization, political dimension.


Option IX.

Political processes and changes in politics.


1. The concept and the essence of political process.


Factors which influence on political process. The structure and the stages of political process. Prophesying and modelling of political process (typology, specifics, instruments. The character and the specifics of the Russian Federation political processes. Technology and political process organization (political decision-making procedure, political mobilization technology). Political participation as the most important characteristic of political process.


2. Political conflicts and regulation methods.


The causes essence and typology of political conflicts. Contemporary conception of political conflict. The prerequisites of political conflicts, their goals and consequences. Conflicts classification. Political conflicts settling problems. Constitutional background and legislative norms of conflict situations settling. Institutional mechanisms of political conflict settling. The character of the Russian Federation political conflicts, the ways of their regulation.


3. Elections as a political process.


The concept of elections and elective systems. Proportional, majority and mixed voting systems. The concept of electoral commission its essence, types, variations, [c.284] stages and participants. The Russian elections and the electoral system. Elections and politics, political and electoral marketing. Social and political technology by electoral campaign. Political leader image. The Russian electoral campaigns specifics.


4. Political development, modernization and governing.


The concept of political development. Revolution, reforms and stagnation. Political modernization essence. The content of political modernization in Russia (the end of the XIX c. – beg. XXI c.). Basic conceptions of the political governing. The specifics of political governing in contemporary Russia.


Self-control work with terms: political process, political participation, conflict, political conflict, social conflict, social changes, electoral system, majority and mixed electoral systems, electoral campaign, political campaign, revolution, reform, stagnation, political modernization.


Option X.

World politics.


1. World politics and geopolitics concepts.


The essence and basic principles of international politics. International relations and world politics conceptions. System of international relations and its structure. The UN role in world politics. National State as a subject of international relations. Another subjects of international relations. Civilizational approach towards the politics. The problem of civilization clash or collapse (according to S. Huntington). Geopolitics and national and state safety in contemporary conditions. Basic backgrounds of national safety conception. National interests and Russia`s safety. Contemporary conceptions of a new world order formation. Global problems of the contemporary politics. The concept and the content of contemporary global problems. Wholeness and contradictions of contemporary civilization. International character of global problems solution. Humanization of international relations. World cooperation sphere broadening. International organizations role in world politics.


2. Foreign policy of Russia.


The concept of foreign policy of Russia. The Russian Federation Constitution on foreign policy of Russia. Basic Trends of the Russian Federation foreign policy. The Russian Federation politics in relationship with the former Soviet republics. The Russian relationship with highly developed countries from North America, Western Europe and Asia. The relationship with developing countries. The Russian Federation role in the UN, UNESCO, etc. The Russian Federation achievements and problems in foreign politics.


Self-control work with terms: foreign policy, world policy, geopolitics, world politics.




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Huntington Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations. Remaking of World Order. – A Touchstone Book. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1997.

From Modernization to Globalization. Social perspectives on International Development // J. Timons, Amy Hite. – Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, 1999.

Lairy Jonston. Politics: An Introduction to the Modern State. Broadview press, USA, Canada, United Kingdom, 2000.

Stephen D. Tansey. Politics: The Basics. London and New York, 2000.

World Politics: Trend and Transformation. Fith Edition // // Charles W. Kegley, Jr., Eugene R. Wittkopf. – St. Martin Press, New York, 1995.

Варывдин В.А., Миронов А. В. Политология в логических схемах и понятиях. – М.: Независимый открытый университет, 1999.

Вебер М. Политика как призвание и профессия // Вебер М. Избранные произведения. – М., 1990.

Гаджиев К.С. Введение в политическую науку. Учебник. – М.: Логос, Высшее образование, 2000.

Ильин М.В. Слова и смыслы. Опыт описания ключевых политических понятий. – М.: РОССПЭН, 1997.

Ирхин Ю.В., Зотов В.Д., Зотова Л.В. Политология. Учебник для студентов юридических вузов. – М.: “Юристъ”, 2000.

Конституция Российской Федерации (1993 г.). – М., 1999.

Панарин А.С. Политология. Учебник. – М.: Проспект, 2000.

Политическая энциклопедия в двух томах / Г.Ю. Семигин и др. – М.: “Мысль”, 1999.

Политология. Учебник / М.А. Василик. – М.: “Гардарики”, 1999.

Политология. Учебник / М.Н. Марченко. – М.: “Зерцало”, 2000.

Политология в вопросах и ответах. / Ю.Г. Волков. – М.: “Гардарики”, 1999.

Пугачев В.П., Соловьев А.И. Введение в политологию. Учебник. – М.: Аспект Пресс, 1996, 2000.

Соловьев А.И. Политология: политическая теория и политические технологии. Учебник. – М.: “Аспект-Пресс”, 2000.


Politological sites


Russian State Library – http://www.rsl.

“Official Russian Federation” (President, Parliament, Government) – http://www.gov.ru.

Internet-Conference of President Vladimir Putin – 2001, March 6 -: http://www.gazeta.ru; or strana.ru, or BBS.org.

“National News Service” – http://www.nns.ru.

Political terms or news or analytic materials – “Rambler”, “Yahoo”

Political Studies” (“Полис”) – http://www.politstudies.ru.

Pro et Contra” – http://pubs.carnegie.ru.p&c/.

Moscow State University – http://www.lib.msu.su/.

Russian Peoples` Friendship University – http://www.lib.pfu.edu.ru. [c.286]





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